Mutnovsky volcano

Mutnovsky volcano  Mutnovsky Volcano (2323 m) is situated 70 km south of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the Southern Kamchatka volcanic belt. The volcano has a composite structure. The entire massif comprises four cones of stratovolcanoes. The structure is compounded by numerous cinder cones and lava flows erupted onto the slopes of the stratovolcanoes. It has numerous and various fumarolic fields where one can see all different forms of modern gas-hydro-thermal activity with magnificent structures of volcanic sulfur of 2,5 m. high and 5 m. in diameter. Some of these structures contains rare minerals, such as markazite and metacinnabarite. Not far from active craters, glaciers and lakes thermal springs are located. The most impressive of them are Severo-Mutnovskiye and Datchnye with vapor-gas spurts, boiling muds, hot lakes and heated bogs. River Vulkannaya flows down from the crater of volcano forms 80 meters-high waterfall and deep canyon Opasny. All this specific features make Mutnovski volcano unique and allow to put it in a line with the most outstanding thermal fields of the world. There were at least 15 eruptions of Mutnovsky recorded in the historic times. In 1848, there was a “severe” eruption which was accompanied by a “collapse of the volcano”. In 1852, 1853, 1854, columns and jets of black smoke and steam were observed above the crate of the volcano. In the 20th century the eruptions of the volcano were explosive and ash-ejecting, though no lava eruptions have been recorded. The last eruption began on 31 December, 1960. At the northeast of the Mutnovsky volcano is the Mutnovsky steam-hydrotherms field. Mutnovsky volcano is situated on the verge of a cast negative gravity anomaly in the gradient zone. An intense positive anomaly characterizes the southeastern sector of the volcano in the magnetic field. Historic eruptions were explosive, except for explosive-effusive eruption in 1904. Any Mutnovsky eruption may cause mud flows which are a treat because of their high speed and devastating potentialities. River Vulkannaya flows down from the crater of volcano forms 80 meters-high waterfall and deep canyon Opasny. All this specific features make Mutnovski volcano unique and allow to put it in a line with the most outstanding thermal fields of the world. From “Active volcanoes of Kamchatka”

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